Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Infinite Jest

Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio, a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy. 
He hath borne me on his back a thousand times, and now, how abhorred in my imagination it is!
(Hamlet, Act 5, Scene 1) 

        The genius of David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest is in its understanding and sympathy for human beings. It is deeply human and humane, exploring the significance of emotional connections and what happens when those connections break down. It is somehow also fitting that the text is incredibly frustrating, like our attempts to forge emotion connections, to read as Wallace intentionally interrupts the text with numerous digressions. 

         Infinite Jest—the title is taken from Hamlet’s eulogy of Yorick quoted aboverevolves around three main groups of characters and a host of ancillary and memorable ones. The first is the Incandenza family: deceased patriarch, James, a man who made a fortune in optics before becoming a filmmaker and founding the Enfield Tennis Academy outside of Boston; matriarch Avril, who runs the academy along with her sometime lover and step-brother Charles Travis; sons Orin, an NFL punter with a penchant for sleeping with young mothers; Mario, born with a deformity and a budding filmmaker; and finally, Hal, a burgeoning tennis prodigy with an intellect rivaling that of his father. 

         Next, there are the various councilors and drug addicts at the nearby Ennet House Drug and Alcohol Recovery House. Finally, there are a group of wheelchair bound Quebecois separatist assassins searching for a copy of James’s last (and legally banned) film, Infinite Jest. Infamously, any person who watches the film only yearns to keep watching it until they die. The Quebecois seek the film as a weapon against O.N.A.N. (the Organization of North American Nations). After O.N.A.N., a merger between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, turned a section of the Northeastern United States into the Great Concavity, a gigantic hazardous waste dump, and forced it upon Canada. 

         Wallace’s ability to depict human psychology is the greatest strength of Infinite Jest. As he bounces back and forth between drug addicts, adolescent teenage tennis players, wheelchair bound terrorists, Wallace describes shame cycles, teenage anxieties, love, and depression in frighteningly realistic terms, coming across as intimately and deeply real to anyone who has experienced these things for themselves. His description of depression is particularly evocative:

It is a level of psychic pain wholly incompatible with human life as we know it. It is a sense of radical and thoroughgoing evil not just as a feature but as the essence of conscious existence. It is a sense of poisoning that pervades the self at the self's most elementary levels. It is a nausea of the cells and soul. Itis an unnumb intuition in which the world is fully rich and animate and un-map-like and also thoroughly painful and malignant and antagonistic to the self, which depressed self It billows on and coagulates around and wraps in Its black folds and absorbs into Itself, so that an almost mystical unity is achieved with a world every constituent of which means painful harm to the self. Its emotional character, the feeling Gompert describes It as, is probably the most indescribable except as a sort of double bind in which any/all of the alternatives we associate with human agency — sitting or standing, doing or resting, speaking or keeping silent, living or dying — are not just unpleasant but literally horrible. (695-696) 

While most of the characters in the novel explore their feelings, Hal Incandenza does not. He may be brilliant and a gifted tennis player, but he is unable to feel emotion of any kind. Hal, Wallace writes, “hasn’t had a bona fide intensity-of-interior-life-type emotion since he was tiny” (694). The causes of his malady range from his damaged upbringing in the Incandenza household to eating mold as a child to his marijuana addiction. The novel suggests that James, the only person to recognize Hal’s emotional emptiness, made the film Infinite Jest  to emotionally draw out his son out. As Aaron Swartz wrote, “Hal moves outwardly but doesn’t feel inside; victims of the Entertainment feel—something—inside but don’t move outwardly.” In a novel about emotions, the protagonist is someone searching for the ability to feel, making it the characteristic that most clearly defines our humanity. 

Wallace also uses dark humor to highlight the search for emotional connection. James Incandenza, Hal’s father, commits suicide by sticking his head in a microwave. Hal relates the discovery of James’s body in darkly humorous way that highlights his emotional emptiness. When describing where James killed himself, Hal tells his brother Orin, “The microwave, O. The rotisserie microwave over next to the fridge, on the freezer side, on the counter, under the cabinet with the plates and bowls to the left of the fridge, as you face the fridge” (248). 

One of the funniest and most memorable scenes in the book is when the tennis players at Enfield play an intricately complex game called Eschaton. Played on the school’s tennis courts with tennis balls serving as nuclear warheads, Eschaton, involving complex linear regressions and game theory, simulates the realpolitik of international diplomacy. The game, under the supervision of game master Otis Lord or O. Lord, however, quickly devolves into childishness with hilarious results. Wallace seems to suggest that despite our best efforts to bring order and rules to the world, we are all just children on a playground. 

Infinite Jest is also a deeply frustrating and, at times, difficult read. Wallace packs the book with 388 endnotes consisting of 96 pages of additional text. Some of the endnotes have footnotes in them as well. Apart from an occasionally funny joke—the best was a description of James’s movies—they’re mostly a place for Wallace to show off his knowledge of pharmaceuticals or indulge in asides or further conversations he left out of the main text. They often interrupt the flow of the narrative and frustrate the reader. 

Infinite Jest is a mammoth text, a testament to Wallace’s prodigious talent and his keen understanding of the human psyche. 

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Updated Saints TV Bingo

Last year, we introduced our Saints TV Bingo board, a convenient guide to all of the lame cliches announcers use when talking about the New Orleans Saints. In light of everything that has happened since last season--Drew Brees's broken thumb and the NFL's utter incompetence when it comes to officiating spread out over multiple crews across multiple months (enough incompetence to make the sanest man go mad)--we decided to update the TV Bingo for the rest of the season.


Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Bye Bye Baby Cakes & What Comes Next

            The New Orleans Baby Cakes, the AAA affiliate of the Miami Marlins, played their last home game at the Shrine on Airline on August 29. They lost 8-5. The loss marks the end of professional baseball in New Orleans—at least for the time being. The Baby Cakes are moving to Wichita, Kansas. Currently, there is no new tenant for the Shrine on Airline for next season. 

            The Baby Cakes arrived in New Orleans in 1993, when they were known as the Zephyrs. The Zephyrs arrival returned professional baseball to New Orleans for the first time since 1977 when the New Orleans Pelicans left town after 90 years in New Orleans. While the Zephyrs came from Denver, their name had local roots as well. The Zephyr was a famous rollercoaster at the Pontchartrain Beach amusement park before it closed in 1983. In 2017, the team rebranded as the Baby Cakes following the trend of other minor leagues who sought quirky nicknames—see the Hartford Yard Goats, the Akron Rubber Ducks, the Rocket City Trash Pandas, and the El Paso Chihuahuas. 

            The reasons for the Baby Cakes departure are myriad. The name change was never popular amongst locals. While ostensibly named after the baby found in king cakes, there is no such thing as a baby cake. Additionally, the mascot (pictured below) looks like the villain of a low-rent Stephen King novel. It’s something that would haunt your fever dreams rather than get you to cheer for the local sports team.  

The Shrine on Airline is also in need of desperate repair. SMG, the firm that manages the stadium, and the Louisiana Stadium and Exposition District (LSED) would have to raise the millions of dollars necessary to cover the upgrades. There is at least $3 million available in funds from the state, but that is only about half of the estimated cost of overhauling the facility. An SMG representative said, “It likely would be a significant improvement for whoever is in there. If there's an opportunity to have a team replace the Baby Cakes that could be successful in the market, we would like to understand what that team would need to be successful.” When the Baby Cakes announced they were leaving at the end of 2018, team officials were hopeful of bringing in a AA Southern League franchise as a replacement. No such deal, however, has materialized.  

Additionally, the Baby Cakes have yet to void their lease for the Shrine on Airline for next season. Their new home in Wichita is not complete and isn’t expected to be finished until January. So there remains a small chance that the Baby Cakes will be back in 2020. But local officials don’t seem too happy about the prospect. It is hard to sell a new franchise on taking over the stadium when the old team hasn’t left yet. The chairman of the LSED has written to the team asking for a departure date.  As he wrote, "Unfortunately, the team’s inaction has created a great deal of uncertainty and … has resulted in the loss of potential revenue for LSED." 

With the Baby Cakes set to leave, whenever that may be, there may not be an appetite for professional baseball in New Orleans. The LSED has explored whether to convert the Shrine on Airline for soccer or rugby use. Attendance for the Baby Cakes has declined for the last few years and there’s plenty of college baseball—LSU, Tulane, UNO, and Delgado—for local fans. August 29, 2019 may have been the end of professional baseball in Louisiana for the foreseeable future. 

Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Saints 2019: Biggest Questions

            The New Orleans Saints begin their 2019 season next Monday night in the Superdome against the Houston Texans. After last year’s division title and trip to the NFC championship game, expectations in the Big Easy are high. As quarterback Drew Brees enters his age-40 season, it’s now or never for the Saints to bring home another Super Bowl title. 

            The leading projection systems are in line with fan expectations. ESPN’s Football Power Index projects New Orleans to go 10-6 with a 73% chance to make the playoffs. The Saints have the third-highest odds to win the Super Bowl (12.3%) behind the Kansas City Chiefs and the New England Patriots.  Football Outsides gives the Saints the best chance of winning Super Bowl LIV at 13.5%. 

            Rather than do a traditional preview, let’s look at the big questions confronting the Saints this season. The answers will determine whether New Orleans will have to add another parade to the already busy Mardi Gras season or go home again without a Super Bowl title. 

Will Drew Brees bounce back? 

            At first glance, Brees had a typical year for him—32 TD passes to only 5 INTs, a 74.4 completion percentage, and nearly 4,000 passing yards. But over the last three regular season games (Brees didn’t play in Week 17) and the Saints two playoff games, Brees was far from his usual self. His yards per attempt fell to 6.95, well below his seasonal average of 8.16. He only threw 2 TD passes against 2 INTs in 3 games. The Saints average points per game fell from nearly 30 to just over 20. In the NFC championship game Brees threw a crucial interception in overtime that resulted in the Rams victory. 

            The question facing the Saints is will Brees bounce back or was this the beginning of the end? The aging curve for 40 year old quarterbacks isn’t pretty. Remember what happened to Peyton Manning in Denver or Brett Favre in Minnesota? But look at Tom Brady in New England who is entering his age 42 season and shows no signs of slowing down. And even a diminished Brees is still better than most other quarterbacks in the NFL. In other words, who knows which Brees will show up on Monday night, but the Saints' Super Bowl hopes ride on #9. 

Will the defense be good again? 

            After years of languishing at the bottom of the league in team defense, in 2018, the New Orleans defense had their second good season in a row. In total, the Saints finished 11th in Football Outsiders DVOA defensive rankings, with the 3rd best run defense but 22nd ranked pass defense. The 2018 Saints flipped their defense ranking from 2017 when they finished 8th overall with the 5th ranked pass defense and 23rd ranked run defense. Over the last few years, New Orleans has invested significant draft capital on defense including first round picks on Sheldon Rankins, Marshon Lattimore, and Marcus Davenport and second round picks on Marcus Williams and Vonn Bell. 

            Defensive performance, however, varies significantly from season to season. Additionally, the Saints were remarkably injury-averse in 2018, finishing 6th in Football Outsiders’ Adjusted Games Lost. Backup cornerback Patrick Robinson was the only significant defensive player to miss time. Injury luck also doesn’t hold over from season to season. The Saints defense may look good on paper, but if Lattimore or star pass-rusher Cameron Jordan miss time, then it will be difficult for the Saints to replicate their defensive success from past years. 

Can the Saints keep winning close games? 

            In 2018, New Orleans went 5-1 in games decided by six points or less. Performance in one score games varies from year to year because it depends on just a handful of plays to break one way or another. Against Cleveland in Week 2, Will Lutz hit a 44 yard field goal with 21 seconds left in the game to win the game for the Saints 21-18. Against Atlanta in Week 3, the Saints had to drive down the field and tie the game 37-37 with 1:15 left in regulation before winning in overtime. Only a missed extra point by the normally reliable Ravens Justin Tucker prevented a 24-24 tie that would have likely gone to overtime. Against Pittsburgh in Week 16, Brees led the Saints on a game winning TD drive and left the Steelers with just 1:25 left on the clock. This season, all those plays might not go the Saints way.  

            Last season, the Saints went 13-3, had homefield advantage in the NFC, and hosted the NFC title game. In order to reach that point, a lot had to go right for the Saints—a good defense, health, and luck mostly—and New Orleans will need those to happen again to give Drew Brees, Sean Payton, and the people of the Crescent City their second Super Bowl title.